Computational Infection Biology Laboratory


DRUSANOGeorge L. Drusano, M.D.
Professor
College of Medicine
Department of Medicine

Faculty Profile

At the Computational Infection Biology Laboratory, we employ state-of-the-art mathematical modeling techniques to generate the maximal insight into complex infection biology models. This laboratory is the underpinning of the other Laboratories of the Institute for Therapeutic Innovation. We apply our quantitative approaches to data generated in other ITI laboratories. Examples include the use of high dimensional mathematical models to analyze the interaction of multiple drugs upon either bacteria or viruses a-d. In these analyses, we look at cell kill (bacteria) or replication suppression (viruses). Uniquely, we also examine the ability of different regimens to suppress resistance emergence in both bacteria and viruses. We also examine the innate immune system and its impact on pathogens. We were the first to examine the saturability of granulocyte function. We also demonstrated that optimal antimicrobial chemotherapy can undo granulocyte saturation and provide optimal granulocyte kill e-h. We have also modeled the natural history of Tier 1 Select Agents to provide insight into why these are such difficult pathogens to treat effectively. Overall, we employ these cutting-edge techniques to amplify the knowledge we gain from the experiments performed.

 


Funding

Current Projects

Co-Principal Investigator, NIH/NIAID, R01AI111970, Optimizing Combination Therapy for Hepatitis C Virus With Pharmacodynamic Models. PI: Ashley Brown, PhD.

Principal Investigator, NIH/NIAID, R01AI121430, Rapid Identification of Optimal Combination Regimens for Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Co-Investigator, UF Opportunity Seed Fund, Nitroxoline Small Molecules as Cures for Persistent Bacterial Infections. PI: Robert Huigens, PhD.

Principal Investigator, NIH/NIAID, P01AI123036, Optimizing Combination Therapy to Accelerate Clinical Cure of Tuberculosis

Co-Principal Investigator, Allergan, Can ceftazidime-avibactam be pharmacodynamically-optimized to prevent emergence of resistance by KPC3-expressing Enterobacteriaceae, CoPI: Arnold Louie, MD

Co-Investigator, USC Subcontract (FDA HHSF223201710199C), Preclinical Mouse Model of Acinetobacter baumannii Infection For Antibacterial Development.

Co-Principal Investigator, Emergent Biosolutions subcontract (DTRA HDTRA l-14-C-0122), GC-072: The First Oral Antibiotic for the Treatment of Acute Melioidosis, CoPI: Henry Heine, PhD

Principal Investigator, NIH/NIAID, Supplement R01AI121430, Supplement Combination of Ceftazidime and Avibactam Plus Fosfomycin for Multi-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Co-Investigator, CURZA Subcontract (BARDA IDSEP160030-02-00), In vivo pharmacokinetics, toxicity and efficacy

Co-Investigator, CURZA Subcontract (NIH R01AI132304), Efficacy in vivo using a mouse thigh infection model

 

Past Projects

Principal Investigator, NIH/NIAID, R01 AI090802, Optimization of Neoglycoside Antibiotics for Nosocomial Pathogens and Select Agent

Principal Investigator, NIH/NIAID, R01 A1079729, Resistance Suppression for Influenza Virus With Combination Chemotherapy

Principal Investigator, NIH/NIAID, R01 AI079578, Resistance Suppression for P. Aeruginosa using Novel Combination Therapy Modeling

Principal Investigator, NIH/NIAID, Supplement R01 AI090802, Resistance Suppression for P. Aeruginosa using Novel Combination Therapy Modeling

Co-Principal Investigator, Merck, Determination of the Pharmacodynamically Linked Index for Two Integrase Inhibitors, CoPI: Ashley Brown, PhD

Principal Investigator, NIH/NIAID, HHSN2722001000043C, Targeted Clinical Trials to Reduce the Risk of Antimicrobial Resistance

Co-Principal Investigator, Rady Children’s Hospital, In Vitro Synergy of Combination Antimicrobial Therapy Using the Hollow Fiber Bioreactor System, CoPI: Arnold Louie, MD

Co-Principal Investigator, Trius Therapeutics subcontract (NIAID Contract # HHSN272200800042C), Novel Agents for Gram-Negative Biodefense, CoPI: Arnold Louie

Co-Principal Investigator, Cerexa, Evaluation of the Efficacy of the Combination of Ceftaroline or Ceftazidime Alone and With Avibactam Against Three Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Three Isolates of

Enterobacteriaceae in an In Vitro Hollow Fiber Pharmacodynamics Infection Models, CoPI: Arnold Louie, MD

Co-Principal Investigator, Merck, Detemination oftbe Pbarmacodynamically-Linked Index for Materials Compound X and Compound Z, CoPI: Ashley Brown, PhD

Co-Principal Investigator, Pfizer, In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Studies for PNU-100480 Alone and In Combination with TMC207, CoPI: Arnold Louie, MD

Co-Principal Investigator, US Army Research Institute of Infectious Diseases subcontract, Evaluating Moxifloxacin for Licensure as a Bacterial Therapeutic Countermeasure, CoPI: Henry Heine, PhD

Co-Principal Investigator, Achaogen subcontract (BARDA Contract HHS0100201000046C), PK/PD Modeling of ACHN-490 in Nonclinical Models for the Achaogen-BARDA ACHN-490 Development Program, CoPI: Henry Heine, PhD

Principal Investigator, Miriam Hospital Subcontract (NIH P30 AI042853), Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for Aids Research (CFAR), Mathematical Analysis of Drug Interactions for TB and HIV, Prime PI: Charles Carpenter, MD

Co-Principal Investigator, Achaogen subcontract (BARDA Contract HHS0100201000046C), Dose-Range Studies for Plazomicin and Comparator Antibiotic(s) for Ten Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Strains in a Neutropenic Mouse Thigh Infection Model, CoPI: Arnold Louie, MD

Co-Principal Investigator, NIH/NIAID, R56AI111974, Combination Therapy Modeling for M tuberculosis Resistance Suppression and Kill, PI: Arnold Louie, MD

Principal Investigator, Allecra Therapeutics, In vitro Hollow Fiber Studies to Evaluate the Efficacy of Allecra Therapeutics’ Novel Beta-Lactamase Inhibitor known as AAI101 in Combination with Cefepime and Piperaclllin against KPC- and ESBL-Producing Enterobacteriaceae

Co-Principal Investigator, Emergent Biosolutions Subcontract (DTRA HDTRA l-14-C-0122), Development of GC-072, CoPI: Arnold Louie, MD

Co-Investigator, Miriam Hospital Subcontract (NIH P30 AI042853), Efficacy of Oxazolidinones Alone and In Vitro EBA Studies & in Polydrug TB Therapy, Prime PI: Awewura Kwara, MD

Co-Principal Investigator, Emergent Biosolutions, Pharmacokinetic Study for to Determine the Comparative Serum Levels of the Amorphous and Crystalline GC-072-K Compounds in Mice to de risk Future Murine Efficacy Studies for Acute Melioidosis, CoPI: Arnold Louie, MD

Co-Principal Investigator, Achaogen Subcontract (BARDA Contract HHS0100201000046C), Dose-range Studies for Plazomlcin in Neutropenic Murine Pneumonia and Thigh Infection Models against Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae that Have Higher MICs to Plazomicin: Comparison with Amikacin, CoPI: Arnold Louie, MD

Co-Investigator, Brigham and Women’s Hospital Subcontract (NIH 5UMIAI068636-10), Prevalence and Mechanism of Baseline Nitroimidazole Resistance in MDR and XDR TB, PI: Ashley Brown, PhD

Co-Principal Investigator, Motif Biosciences, In vitro Hollow Fiber Pharmacodynamic Studies to Identify the Dose and Frequency of Administration of Iclaprim that Optimizes the Killing of MRSA and Prevents the Emergence of Drug-Resistance During Therapy, CoPI: Arnold Louie, MD

Co-Principal Investigator, Roche, Pharmacokinetics-Pharmacodynamics of Nacubactam (RG-6080), a Potent Non-Beta-Lactam Beta-Lactamase Inhibitor, In Combination with Meropenem for the Killing of Multidrug-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Neutropenic Mouse Thigh Infection and Neutropenic Pneumonia Models, CoPI: Arnold Louie

Co-Principal Investigator, Achaogen Subcontract (BARDA Contract HHS0100201000046C), Dose-fractionation study for AKPN001 (ATCC 43816) for plazomicin and the pharmacokinetics pharmacodynamics of amikacin, CoPI: Arnold Louie, MD

Co-Investigator, NIAID/NIH, Subcontract R01AI130185, Next-generation combination dosing strategies to combat resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, PI: Jürgen Bulitta, Ph.D

Co-Investigator, NIAID/NIH, Subcontract R01AI136803, Combating resistant superbugs by understanding the molecular determinants of target site penetration and binding, PI: Jürgen Bulitta, Ph.D


Students and Trainees

  1. Tobias Heinrichs, Ph.D. Candidate (now Ph.D.)

Heinrichs MT, Drusano GL, Brown DL, Maynard MS, Sy SKB, Rand KH, Peloquin CA, Louie A, Derendorf H. Dose Optimization of Moxifloxacin and Linezolid Against Tuberculosis Using Mathematical Modeling and Simulation. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2018 Oct 29. pii: S0924-8579(18)30304-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2018.10.012. [Epub ahead of print]


Publications

Breakpoint determination when multiple organisms are tested for effect targets.

Drusano GL, Louie A. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2019 Jan 31;130:196-199. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2019.01.033. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 30711687

Effect of Moxifloxacin plus Pretomanid against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Log Phase, Acid Phase, and Nonreplicating-Persister Phase in an In Vitro Assay. de Miranda Silva C, Hajihosseini A, Myrick J, Nole J, Louie A, Schmidt S, Drusano GL. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 Dec 21;63(1). pii: e01695-18. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01695-18. Print 2019 Jan. PMID: 30397058

Dose optimization of moxifloxacin and linezolid against tuberculosis using mathematical modeling and simulation. Heinrichs MT, Drusano GL, Brown DL, Maynard MS, Sy SKB, Rand KH, Peloquin CA, Louie A, Derendorf H. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2018 Oct 29. pii: S0924-8579(18)30304-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2018.10.012. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 30385322

The Combination of Fosfomycin plus Meropenem Is Synergistic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 in a Hollow-Fiber Infection Model. Drusano GL, Neely MN, Yamada WM, Duncanson B, Brown D, Maynard M, Vicchiarelli M, Louie A. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 Nov 26;62(12). pii: e01682-18. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01682-18. Print 2018 Dec. PMID: 30249700

Activity of Moxifloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Acid Phase and Nonreplicative-Persister Phenotype Phase in a Hollow-Fiber Infection Model.

Louie A, Duncanson B, Myrick J, Maynard M, Nole J, Brown D, Schmidt S, Neely M, Scanga CA, Peloquin C, Drusano GL. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 Nov 26;62(12). pii: e01470-18. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01470-18. Print 2018 Dec. PMID: 30249693

Four Decades of β-Lactam Antibiotic Pharmacokinetics in Cystic Fibrosis. Bulitta JB, Jiao Y, Drescher SK, Oliver A, Louie A, Moya B, Tao X, Wittau M, Tsuji BT, Zavascki AP, Shin BS, Drusano GL, Sörgel F, Landersdorfer CB. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2019 Feb;58(2):143-156. doi: 10.1007/s40262-018-0678-x. Review. PMID: 29936678

Antiviral Effects of Clinically-Relevant Interferon-α and Ribavirin Regimens against Dengue Virus in the Hollow Fiber Infection Model (HFIM). Pires de Mello CP, Drusano GL, Rodriquez JL, Kaushik A, Brown AN. Viruses. 2018 Jun 9;10(6). pii: E317. doi: 10.3390/v10060317. PMID: 29890736

Effect of Linezolid plus Bedaquiline against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Log Phase, Acid Phase, and Nonreplicating-Persister Phase in an In Vitro Assay. de Miranda Silva C, Hajihosseini A, Myrick J, Nole J, Louie A, Schmidt S, Drusano GL. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 Jul 27;62(8). pii: e00856-18. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00856-18. Print 2018 Aug. PMID: 29866874

Linezolid Kills Acid-Phase and Nonreplicative-Persister-Phase Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Hollow-Fiber Infection Model. Drusano GL, Myrick J, Maynard M, Nole J, Duncanson B, Brown D, Schmidt S, Neely M, Scanga CA, Peloquin C, Louie A. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 Jul 27;62(8). pii: e00221-18. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00221-18. Print 2018 Aug. PMID: 29866864

First Penicillin-Binding Protein Occupancy Patterns of β-Lactams and β-Lactamase Inhibitors in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Sutaria DS, Moya B, Green KB, Kim TH, Tao X, Jiao Y, Louie A, Drusano GL, Bulitta JB. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 May 25;62(6). pii: e00282-18. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00282-18. Print 2018 Jun. PMID: 29712652

Determination of the Dynamically Linked Indices of Fosfomycin for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Hollow Fiber Infection Model. Louie A, Maynard M, Duncanson B, Nole J, Vicchiarelli M, Drusano GL.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 May 25;62(6). pii: e02627-17. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02627-17. Print 2018 Jun. PMID: 29581114

Sofosbuvir (SOF) Suppresses Ledipasvir (LDV)-resistant Mutants during SOF/LDV Combination Therapy against Genotype 1b Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Brown AN, Liu L, Rodriquez JL, Zhao L, Schuster L, Li E, Wang GP, Neely MN, Yamada W, Drusano GL. Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 31;7(1):14421. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-15007-2. PMID: 29089577

Oseltamivir-zanamivir combination therapy suppresses drug-resistant H1N1 influenza A viruses in the hollow fiber infection model (HFIM) system. Pires de Mello CP, Drusano GL, Adams JR, Shudt M, Kulawy R, Brown AN. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2018 Jan 1;111:443-449. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2017.10.027. Epub 2017 Oct 25. PMID: 29079337

Dilution Factor of Quantitative Bacterial Cultures Obtained by Bronchoalveolar Lavage in Patients with Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia. Drusano GL, Corrado ML, Girardi G, Ellis-Grosse EJ, Wunderink RG, Donnelly H, Leeper KV, Brown M, Malek T, Hite RD, Ferrari M, Djureinovic D, Kollef MH, Mayfield L, Doyle A, Chastre J, Combes A, Walsh TJ, Dorizas K, Alnuaimat H, Morgan BE, Rello J, Mazo CA, Jones RN, Flamm RK, Woosley L, Ambrose PG, Bhavnani S, Rubino CM, Bulik CC, Louie A, Vicchiarelli M, Berman C. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Dec 21;62(1). pii: e01323-17. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01323-17. Print 2018 Jan.  PMID: 29038277

Pre-clinical in vitro infection models.Drusano GL. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2017 Oct;36:100-106. doi: 10.1016/j.coph.2017.09.011. Epub 2017 Oct 14. Review.

Searching for synergy: Identifying optimal antiviral combination therapy using Hepatitis C virus (HCV) agents in a replicon system. Pomeroy JJ, Drusano GL, Rodriquez JL, Brown AN.

Antiviral Res. 2017 Oct;146:149-152. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2017.09.001. Epub 2017 Sep 4.

Evaluation of Combination Drug Therapy for Treatment of Antibiotic-Resistant Inhalation Anthrax in a Murine Model. Heine HS, Shadomy SV, Boyer AE, Chuvala L, Riggins R, Kesterson A, Myrick J, Craig J, Candela MG, Barr JR, Hendricks K, Bower WA, Walke H, Drusano GL.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Aug 24;61(9). pii: e00788-17. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00788-17. Print 2017 Sep. PMID: 28696235

Stepping Off the Resistance Treadmill. Drusano GL. J Infect Dis. 2017 Jul 15;216(2):150-152. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jix212. No abstract available. PMID: 28475769

From lead optimization to NDA approval for a new antimicrobial: Use of pre-clinical effect models and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic mathematical modeling.

Drusano GL. Bioorg Med Chem. 2016 Dec 15;24(24):6401-6408. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2016.08.034. Epub 2016 Aug 27. Review. PMID: 27612961

Chikungunya Virus: In Vitro Response to Combination Therapy With Ribavirin and Interferon Alfa 2a.

Gallegos KM, Drusano GL, D Argenio DZ, Brown AN. J Infect Dis. 2016 Oct 15;214(8):1192-7. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiw358. Epub 2016 Aug 5. PMID: 27496974

Pharmacodynamics for antifungal drug development: an approach for acceleration, risk minimization and demonstration of causality. Hope W, Drusano GL, Rex JH. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016 Nov;71(11):3008-3019. Epub 2016 Aug 5. Review. PMID: 27494925

Natural History of Francisella tularensis in Aerosol-Challenged BALB/c Mice. Heine HS, Chuvala L, Riggins R, Cirz R, Cass R, Louie A, Drusano GL. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 Jan 11;60(3):1834-40. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02887-15. PMID: 26824958

Suppression of Emergence of Resistance in Pathogenic Bacteria: Keeping Our Powder Dry, Part 2.

Drusano GL, Hope W, MacGowan A, Louie A. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Dec 28;60(3):1194-201. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02231-15. Review. PMID: 26711766

Suppression of Emergence of Resistance in Pathogenic Bacteria: Keeping Our Powder Dry, Part 1.

Drusano GL, Louie A, MacGowan A, Hope W. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Dec 28;60(3):1183-93. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02177-15. Review. PMID: 26711759

Evaluation of Daptomycin Exposure and Efficacy and Safety Endpoints To Support Risk-versus-Benefit Considerations. Bhavnani SM, Ambrose PG, Hammel JP, Rubino CM, Drusano GL. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Dec 28;60(3):1600-7. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02967-15. PMID: 26711755

Preclinical Evaluations To Identify Optimal Linezolid Regimens for Tuberculosis Therapy. Brown AN, Drusano GL, Adams JR, Rodriquez JL, Jambunathan K, Baluya DL, Brown DL, Kwara A, Mirsalis JC, Hafner R, Louie A. MBio. 2015 Nov 3;6(6):e01741-15. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01741-15.

PMID: 26530386

Pharmacodynamics of fosfomycin: insights into clinical use for antimicrobial resistance. Docobo-Pérez F, Drusano GL, Johnson A, Goodwin J, Whalley S, Ramos-Martín V, Ballestero-Tellez M, Rodriguez-Martinez JM, Conejo MC, van Guilder M, Rodríguez-Baño J, Pascual A, Hope WW. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Sep;59(9):5602-10. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00752-15. Epub 2015 Jun 29. PMID: 26124169

Pharmacokinetic determinants of virological response to raltegravir in the in vitro pharmacodynamic hollow-fiber infection model system. Brown AN, Adams JR, Baluya DL, Drusano GL. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Jul;59(7):3771-7. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00469-15. Epub 2015 Apr 13. PMID: 25870053

Pharmacodynamic evaluation of the activities of six parenteral vancomycin products available in the United States. Louie A, Boyne MT 2nd, Patel V, Huntley C, Liu W, Fikes S, Kurhanewicz S, Rodriquez J, Robbins N, Brown D, Baluya D, Drusano GL. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Jan;59(1):622-32. doi: 10.1128/AAC.03710-14. Epub 2014 Nov 10. PMID: 25385113

Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis for efficacy of ceftaroline fosamil in patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. Bhavnani SM, Hammel JP, Van Wart SA, Rubino CM, Reynolds DK, Forrest A, Drusano GL, Khariton T, Friedland HD, Riccobene TA, Ambrose PG.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Jan;59(1):372-80. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02531-14. Epub 2014 Nov 3.

PMID: 25367904

Combination treatment with meropenem plus levofloxacin is synergistic against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in a murine model of pneumonia. Louie A, Liu W, VanGuilder M, Neely MN, Schumitzky A, Jelliffe R, Fikes S, Kurhanewicz S, Robbins N, Brown D, Baluya D, Drusano GL. J Infect Dis. 2015 Apr 15;211(8):1326-33. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu603. Epub 2014 Oct 31. PMID: 25362196

Analysis of combination drug therapy to develop regimens with shortened duration of treatment for tuberculosis. Drusano GL, Neely M, Van Guilder M, Schumitzky A, Brown D, Fikes S, Peloquin C, Louie A. PLoS One. 2014 Jul 8;9(7):e101311. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101311. eCollection 2014. PMID: 25003557

Vancomycin exposure in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections: how much is enough? Lodise TP, Drusano GL, Zasowski E, Dihmess A, Lazariu V, Cosler L, McNutt LA. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Sep 1;59(5):666-75. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu398. Epub 2014 May 27. PMID: 24867791

Quantifying the matrix of relationships between reduced vancomycin susceptibility phenotypes and outcomes among patients with MRSA bloodstream infections treated with vancomycin. Lodise TP, Drusano GL, Lazariu V, El-Fawal N, Evans A, Graffunder E, Stellrecht K, Mendes RE, Jones RN, Cosler L, McNutt LA. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014 Sep;69(9):2547-55. doi: 10.1093/jac/dku135. Epub 2014 May 19. PMID: 24840624

Individualised antibiotic dosing for patients who are critically ill: challenges and potential solutions.

Roberts JA, Abdul-Aziz MH, Lipman J, Mouton JW, Vinks AA, Felton TW, Hope WW, Farkas A, Neely MN, Schentag JJ, Drusano G, Frey OR, Theuretzbacher U, Kuti JL; International Society of Anti-Infective Pharmacology and the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Study Group of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Jun;14(6):498-509. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70036-2. Epub 2014 Apr 24. Review. PMID: 24768475

Interaction of drug- and granulocyte-mediated killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a murine pneumonia model. Drusano GL, Liu W, Fikes S, Cirz R, Robbins N, Kurhanewicz S, Rodriquez J, Brown D, Baluya D, Louie A. J Infect Dis. 2014 Oct 15;210(8):1319-24. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu237. Epub 2014 Apr 22.

PMID: 24760199

Activities of ceftazidime and avibactam against β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a hollow-fiber pharmacodynamic model. Coleman K, Levasseur P, Girard AM, Borgonovi M, Miossec C, Merdjan H, Drusano G, Shlaes D, Nichols WW. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 Jun;58(6):3366-72. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00080-14. Epub 2014 Mar 31. PMID: 24687507

Evaluation of imipenem for prophylaxis and therapy of Yersinia pestis delivered by aerosol in a mouse model of pneumonic plague.Heine HS, Louie A, Adamovicz JJ, Amemiya K, Fast RL, Miller L, Opal SM, Palardy J, Parejo NA, Sörgel F, Kinzig-Schippers M, Drusano GL. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 Jun;58(6):3276-84. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02420-14. Epub 2014 Mar 31. PMID: 24687492

Centers for disease control and prevention expert panel meetings on prevention and treatment of anthrax in adults. Hendricks KA, Wright ME, Shadomy SV, Bradley JS, Morrow MG, Pavia AT, Rubinstein E, Holty JE, Messonnier NE, Smith TL, Pesik N, Treadwell TA, Bower WA; Workgroup on Anthrax Clinical Guidelines. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Feb;20(2). doi: 10.3201/eid2002.130687. PMID: 24447897

Use of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic systems analyses to inform dose selection of tedizolid phosphate. Lodise TP, Drusano GL. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Jan;58 Suppl 1:S28-34. doi: 10.1093/cid/cit615. Review. PMID: 24343829

Are vancomycin trough concentrations adequate for optimal dosing? Neely MN, Youn G, Jones B, Jelliffe RW, Drusano GL, Rodvold KA, Lodise TP. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58(1):309-16. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01653-13. Epub 2013 Oct 28. PMID: 24165176